Much food for thought in this article on American political philosopher John Rawls' theory of "justice as fairness" by Steven Maizie at The Stone blog at New York Times...
This idea is built on the premise that in a just society, citizens should be understood as free and equal participants in a system of social cooperation. Some individuals may be more motivated and harder working, and thus can legitimately expect greater rewards for their efforts. But everyone deserves the same bundle of individual rights and liberties, and everyone is entitled to “fair equality of opportunity,” including access to a decent education and a genuine chance of success in pursuing one’s life plans.
Read more via opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com
See more about John Rawls' work at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.